Serum magnesium levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Comparisons between good and poor glycaemic control


T Salwani T ISMAIL 1,  Najib Majdi YAACOB 3, Julia OMAR 1, Zulkarnain MUSTAPHA 1, Harmy YUSUFF 2, Hasenan NORDIN 1

1 Department of Chemical Pathology, 2 Department of Family Medicine, 3 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Malaysia, Kelantan,




Introduction: Magnesium is a major determinant of insulin and glucose metabolism. The lower the magnesium, the greater the amount of insulin required to metabolise the same amount of glucose load, indicating insulin insensitivity. Many studies have reported hypomagnesaemia in diabetes mellitus and its relation to poor glycaemic control. This study provides overview regarding the level of serum magnesium among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM) and correlates the level with diabetic control as measured by HbA1c. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among 75 good control (HbA1c ≤ 7.0% in two consecutive reading or one ≤6.5%) and 75 poor glycaemic control (two HbA1c > 7.0% readings or one ≥6.5% reading over the study period) who attended the Out-Patient Department Clinic and Medical Specialist Clinic HUSM, Kelantan. The patient had been called for sampling of serum magnesium level within three weeks of last the HbA1c result. Results: The proportion of hypomagnesaemia was 8.6% and seen mostly among the poor glycaemic control group. The mean serum magnesium level in good glycaemic control patients (0.94 0.10 mmol/L) was significantly higher than the poor glycaemic control group (0.88 0.10 mmol/L, p<0.05). Significant but weak inverse correlation were observed between serum magnesium levels and HbA1c in both groups (r=-0.22 and p=0.004 in poor control group, r= -0.26 and p=0.020 in good control group). Conclusion: Subjects with poor glycaemic control had significantly lower magnesium level than good glycaemic control. There was significant correlation between serum magnesium level and glycaemic control.


Keywords: Glycaemic control, hypomagnesaemia, hypermagnesaemia, diabetes mellitus


Correspondence author: T Salwani T Ismail, Jabatan Patologi Kimia, Pusat Pengajian Sains Perubatan, Kampus Kesihatan USM, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan

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Brunei Int Med J. 2015; 11 (1): 23-29