Dietary sources of sodium and Socio-demographics correlate of sodium intake in Brunei Darussalam using 24 hours urinary sodium excretion


Zakaria KAMIS, Raizul Amir IDROS, Suryani TAMIN, Roseyati YAAKUB,

Ibrahim ABDUL RAHMAN, ONG Sok King, Norhayati KASSIM Health Promotion Centre, Ministry of Health Brunei Darussalam



Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate sodium intake and identify sociodemographic correlates of sodium intake and major sources of sodium in the diet. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 172 conveniently sampled men and women. Dietary sodium was estimated from 24 hours urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium were determined using a food frequency questionnaire. Results: The mean sodium intake was 2,697 (SD 1,101) mg/day [salt equivalent 6.85 (SD 2.80) gm/day], with 71% exceeded the <2,000 mg sodium per day recommended by the World Health Organisation. The highest proportion of participants exceeded the recommendation were among males (84%; 95% CI: 72-95) and those in 18-29 age group (82%; 95% CI: 70-95). Using multivariable analysis, age and body weight were the main independent determinants of sodium intake. Salt and sauces added during cooking or at the table contributed to 61% while processed foods contributed to 39% of the total sodium intake. Noodle soup, plain soup, soy sauce, bread, chilli and tomato sauce were among the highest contributors of sodium. Conclusions: Sodium recommendation should be set at <2,000 mg per day. Intervention should put priority on consumers’ education through mass media campaign with focused key messages to reduce discretionary salt and sauces in cooking or at table. Product reformulation of processed foods should be targeted at those with the largest contribution of sodium. Monitoring sodium reduction intervention and changes in population sodium intake is vital for the development of an effective policy and intervention on sodium.


Keywords: Salt intake, urinary sodium excretion, dietary sources, sodium reduction strategy


Correspondence author: Zakaria KAMIS, Health Promotion Centre, Commonwealth Drive, Ministry of Health, Brunei Darussalam

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Brunei Int Med J. 2016; 12 (2): 60-69