PREVALENCE OF CRYPTO-SPORIDIOSIS AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG PATIENTS WITH ACUTE DIARRHOEA ATTENDING ABUJA TEACHING HOSPITAL, NIGERIA.
Idris Nasir ABDULLAHI1, Anthony Uchenna EMERIBE2, Kabir UMAR1, Hafeez Aderinsayo ADEKOLA3, Peter Elisha GHAMBA4, Nafiu FARUKU1, Nkechi Blessing ONUKEGBE5, Chisom Emmanuel OKECHUKWU6, Adamu BABAYO7, Dele Ohinoyi AMADU8
1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, 3Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria, 4WHO National Polio Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 5Department of Strategic Information and Research, Institute of Human Virology, Abuja, Nigeria, 6Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria, 7Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, and 8Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Background: Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic and foodborne parasitic infection which has become a major subject of public health concern in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of cryptosporidiosis in patients with acute diarrhea (˂5 days post onset) attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: 160 patients presenting with acute diarrhea (40 <5 years children, 40 HIV patients, 40 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) and 40 persons with type-2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM)). Fresh fecal samples were collected and immediately analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp using modified Ziehl Neelsen (mZN) protocol and Cryptosporidium antigen (CA) based-ELISA. Results: The detection rate of CA by ELISA was 26.3% while Cryptosporidium spp oocytes detection by mZN was 13.7%. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 7.5% in pTB infected patients, 20% in HIV patients, 62.5% in ˂5 years children and 27.5% in T2DM patients. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was significantly associated with gender, socioeconomic status and marital status (p˂ 0.05) Possession of house pets (OR=9.21, 95% CI=4.15-20.4), practice of backyard poultry (OR=8.81, 95% CI=3.27-23.73), daily vegetable consumption (OR=4.42, 95% CI=2.02-9.63) and household size (OR= 2.49, 95% CI=1.14-5.43) were significant risk factors of cryptosporidiosis. Conclusion: Compared to the 15% national prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in Nigeria, it can be inferred that the present study revealed a significantly high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among paediatric patients, HIV patients and T2DM patients presenting with acute diarrhea to Abuja Teaching Hospital.
Keywords: Cryptosporidiosis, Children, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Diarrhea, HIV, Intestinal parasite, Risk factors, Tuberculosis.
Corresponding author: Mr. Idris Nasir ABDULLAHI, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Brunei Int Med J. 2020;16:49-57