HIGH SERUM VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-A IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCE BLADDER CANCER STAGES.
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara – H. Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, Indonesia.
Background: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play key role in bladder cancer progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is extensively studied and could be used either as target therapy or prognostic biomarker. Objective of this study was to assess relationship between serum VEGF-A and staging of bladder cancer. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia between February to September 2019. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Staging of bladder was assessed by computed tomography scan and histopathology. Results: Thirty patients with bladder cancer were included. Median age of subjects was 56.5 years old. Dominant gender and comorbidity were male and hypertension, respectively. Serum VEGF-A level was significantly higher in patient with more advance primary tumor stage T3/4 (p=0.029) and both lymph node stage N1-3 (p=0.015) and distant metastasis (p=0.001). Conclusion: VEGF-A is associated with advance bladder cancer stage and may be use as a prognostic biomarker and a target for future therapy.
Keywords: Biomarkers, Bladder carcinoma, TNM Staging, Vascular endothelial growth factor A.
Corresponding author: Ginanda Putra Siregar, SpU (Specialist in Urology), Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara – H. Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, Indonesia.
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Brunei Int Med J. 2020;16:79-83