Clinical significance of heterotopic gastric mucosal patch of the proximal esophagus.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jan 21;19(3):331-338.
Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the proximal esophagus (HGMPE), also referred to as "inlet patch" or "cervical inlet patch", is a salmon colored patch that is usually located just distal to the upper esophageal sphincter. HGMPE is uncommon with endoscopic studies reporting a prevalence ranging from less than one percent to 18%. Most HGMPE are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally during endoscopy for evaluations of other gastrointestinal complaints. Most consider HGMPE as clinically irrelevant entity. The clinical significance of HGMPE is mainly acid related or neoplastic transformation. The reported prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms varies from less than 20% to as high as 73.1%. However, most of these symptoms are mild. Clinically significant acid related complications such as bleeding, ulcerations, structure and fistulization have been reported. Although rare, dysplastic changes and malignancies in association with HGMPE have also been reported. Associations with Barrett's esophagus have also been reported but the findings so far have been conflicting. There are still many areas that are unknown or not well understood and these include the natural history of HGMPE, risk factors for complications, role of Helicobacter pylori infection and factors associated with malignant transformations. Follow-up may need to be considered for patients with complications of HGMPE and surveillance if biopsies show intestinal metaplasia or dysplastic changes. Despite the overall low incidence of clinically relevant manifestations reported in the literature, HGMPE is a clinically significant entity but further researches are required to better understand its clinical significance.
Correspondence: Chong VH. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BA 1710, Brunei Darussalam. firstname.lastname@example.org.